Phonics is the method that builds the foundations of children’s reading and writing skills by helping them become aware of the correspondences between letters and sounds. English consists of about 44 phonemes (sound variations), but more than 170 graphemes (different written representations for these sounds).
This means that English has no strict one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds, but it’s also not entirely irregular. It involves numerous patterns and regularities and phonics is the method that helps children become aware of these regularities. Learning phonics has been proven to improve children’s literacy skills and it is highly recommended by childhood literacy experts.